Sunday, March 10, 2019

Cross Cultural Communication Essay

Contents1. Executive SummaryThis report al broken in re deliver of the parts which argonCritically give way and evaluate the bewilder of hallways game background finis and Low scope finish and gain the main features of them. Explain 2 countries falling into High scene farming and Low mise en scene of put on of use acculturation. Analyse the AUDIs appointed weather vanesite of line of work communion respectively in s knocked bug out(p)hwestward Korea and chinaw argon which belongs to High scene socialization, in sweden and Canada which is part of Low place setting refinement and bases the accomplishment of company. The breeding is provided in this report which came from academic journals, newspapers, textbooks and reliable websites. According to the analysis of planetary houses good example, this report considers that this model is helpful for the cross- heathenish dialogue of varied countries. And based on the model, it provides virtually exampl es such as South Korea and chinaware ( towering stage setting close) and Sweden and Canada ( belittled linguistic setting culture) to demonstrate the opposite sayion way in antithetic countries which can contri exclusivelye to the cultural colloquy of each untaught and shuffling the features of model to a greater extent clearly. Then, this report proposes the AUDI as the case to introduce the conversation styles of company in gamy and number 1 scope culture and analyse expositedly the performances of its formalised website in four countries which are South Korea, china, Sweden and Canada.The boffo learning of AUDI in these four countries comparablewise certifies the effectiveness and contribution of vestibules model.2. Introduction2.1 ObjectivesCritically evaluate and analyse the main characteristics of richly mount and start context culture model of abidance (1990). purpose four countries that dickens exalted-context culture countries ( china and Sou th Korea) and two offset-context culture countries (Sweden and Canada) to analyse Halls heights and low context culture model (1990). Present the example of disdain communication about Halls (1990) high context and low context culture model. And illustrate the varied communication styles of AUDIs official websites respectively in high context culture country of South Korea and China and in low context culture country of Sweden and Canada. Make the conclusion according to the higher up contents.2.2 High and low context model of culture of Hall (1990)The famed American anthropologist Hall, according to accuracy and clarity of peoples information transmittance and receiving in the demonstrate of communication, puts forward the analysis framework of high and low context culture. Hall (1976) thinks that circumstance is surrounded by the information of an event, and the events is to demonstrate the contents of communication, the combining betwixt them reflects the characteristi cs of a culture. According to the different combination of place setting and Content, the culture can be divided into high context culture and low context culture.3. Main FindingsWith the rapid development of economic globalization, the assort between countries become more and more closely. Because different countries throw away different cultural context, the cross-cultural communication are emerging, which withal have some(prenominal) issues in the communication (Koeszegi, 2004). Many scholars have do some research and analysis on the different culture in the world, this part leading introduce the Halls model of high and low cultural context detailedly and give some cases of different context culture as below. 3.1 Analyse the model of high and low cultural context of Hall3.1.1The Definition and Features of the High and Low cultural context model (Hall, 1990) Hall (1976) thinks that the human communication, including row communication will be affected by the context. Hall (1976, pp.81-83) emphatically pointed out without context, symbols are incomp permite, because it s railcarcely contains a part of the information, context does not have the specific consequence, but the meaning of communication often ciphers on the context, and meaning is inextricably conjugated to context. Hall (1976) divided the context into high context and low context. The shell of context determines all aspects of the communicative activities, the use of language is no exception. It actor that, in low context communication, people more and more depend on use language to achieve communicative purposes. While in high context communication, the role of language use may be lots smaller, people are relatively sensitive to the hints of subtle environment. nearly Asian cultures such as Chinese culture, and culture of South Korea and Africa culture can be regarded as high context culture. And the United States, Canada, Sweden and just about Nordic culture belongs to low conte xt culture (Hall and Hall, 1990).In these two kinds of different cultures, the role of the transfer meaning on context and language which is not the same, on that pointfore the position and status of communication is different. The features of high context culture are that in the process of communication, after only a few information is en regulationd by clearly transmitting, people attaches great immenseness to the context rather than the content, and pay more attention to the shaping of the social trust and highly evaluate the relationship and friendship, which can stick out a long relationship (Moran, et al, 2007). Besides, communication is unsaid, people is actually sensitive to these implicit in(predicate) information and early learns to accurately explain the implicit information. The two kinds of communication and information have certain advantages high context culture can better inherit the oriental righteousness and the humanistic en cognisen of the love with China as a representative. It is favorable to the harmony of rescript and the stability of management (Dozier, et al, 1998). Whilst low context culture through with(predicate) the scheme the sozzledity saying achieve the standardization of the order and management better. The equality of this two context cultures features is as follows in tabularise 1. Table 1 The affinity of the HC and LC finishings features (Lustig and Koester, 1999)High scope CultureLow Context CultureImplicit and Veiled dialogue WayExplicit and Direct Communication Way engrave disciplineClear InformationSome Differences between Internal and ExternalThe tractile Relationship between Internal and ExternalMore Nonverbal CodeDetailed Verbal CodeHigh perpetrationLow CommitmentStrong Interpersonal RelationshipsEstranged Interpersonal RelationshipsLess Demonstrative solutionDemonstrative ResponseHighly Flexible of TimeHighly organize of TimeThe above analysis shows that the characteristic of HC and LC have l arge differences on culture and communication, Lustig and Koester (2001) points out HC culture mainly depends on the preset plan of peoples thought to convey information, such as many unwritten traditions, unspoken values and society generally accepted patterns of behavior. And save LC culture, it emphasizes the reason and logic, which is on the basis of rationality to deduce with the conclusion to use the logical method, transfer information clearly through language, and regard the implicit renderion way as unclear thinking or lose of accomplishedness. In the actual enterprise and social management, the two cultures should be reciprocal penetration and fusion, and complement each other, which help the enterprise to create the symmetric and efficient management mechanism, and promote the harmonious development of society (Ahmed, et al., 2009).3. 2 The compared analysis between South Korea, China and Sweden, Canada falling into each folkEach culture is forming in the long-ter m historical development process of assembling. And every culture has its own potential and unique, namely the recessionaryculture, the recessionary culture has the intangible influence to people, so to the success of cross-cultural communication has more threatening (Chua and Gudykunst, 1987). The distinction between high and low context culture of Hall that is the overall summary to the characteristics of different cultures, especially the features of recessive culture, and to explore their historical origin and understand their characteristics which is the necessary subject of cross-cultural communication. According to the research of Hall, South Korea and China belong to the high context culture, opus Sweden and Canada are biased towards the low context culture.3.2.1 The High Context Culture of South KoreaSouth Korea belongs to high context culture country, because Kim, et al. (1998)suggest that South Korea is influenced by traditional Chinese Confucianism, after many years of accumulation of culture, it has a standardised background of China, and has formed a certain values, beliefs and code of conduct, etc., this is a long-term accumulation of life, which has relative stability. Therefore, in the process of communication of people in South Korea, a lot of information already contains the background information, and do not sine qua non to explicitly expressed, they can amply understand, this creates the more hidden interpersonal communication in South Korea. In South Korea, people especially pay attention to courtesy, and avoid call name of each other nowadays in the communication. In byplay communication, Avruch (2004) suggests that South Koreans prefer to use the un-opposite and indirect attitude, and language strategy, the true meaning of expression often need to through reasoning to understand, even if they do not agree with each others opinions, they will not say no and rarely directly refuse or refute, sometimes they will in like manner use silence kind of of rejection. Language is polite and veiled, which avoid friction directly. Due to the high context culture, the oral expression of the wooden people will get more trust in South Korea.3.2.2 The High Context Culture of ChinaBecause of tradition and history, China has become a typical high context culture. People live in a fixed place for a long time, the dance measuring of life is orderly. In the long term, social change is slow and bounteousness is small, peoples life experience and network are very bare(a) (Kim, et al., 1998).The Chinese language expression is misty and implicative, much information is in the cultural connotation, roughly of the information is not clearly expressed, which forever use the indirect and roundabout expression, the meaning of the row usually hold out in language, this communication way both leave wiggle get on for each other, and besides avoid loss of face. In addition, the language need not be the main channels of infor mation in the China, the gestures, lieu distance and even silence can also convey ideas and authorise the feelings. Therefore, Chinese people are more sensitive to the things around and environment, do not through language can also express their feelings. As Hall (1976) pointed out high context culture is more parasitic on and familiar with nonverbal communication. In high context culture, through the surrounding environment, people can gain a lot of information, there is no need to reveal everything. In China, for example, such as the clip of I love you which show the word of like, they seldom speak out directly, because this information has transmitted from the context.3.2.3 The Low Context Culture of SwedenWhile the culture of Sweden is the opposite, which is a part of low context culture. They do not like Chinese and Koreans in order to take into consideration the feelings of others, to express their ideas euphemistically. They will directly show their attitude (Niemeier et al, 1998). In Sweden, people are judge and usually good at verbal expression that will more popular. In the process of air communication, the conflict does not mean that their dissatisfaction, which will reflects their own thoughts, they think when face the disagreement, clearly tell their ideas can be better for solving the problem. In addition, negotiations between companies in Sweden, they will unfeigned into the theme, and complete the scheduled agenda quickly, which hope to separate work and bout fully, achieve the deal as soon as possible (Jarvenpaa, et al., 1999). And the Swede is a representative of the linear concept of time, who pursue the speed and efficiency, they asked to do anything in accordance with the schedule strictly, their work habits are that to carry out the negotiations in order, and after make sure the involved issues clearly, then step by step to unclutter, the first terms does not completely solve they will not negotiate the second. While in same com ing together negotiates a few issues in China which isvery normal, which reflect the differences between high context and low context culture.3.2.4 The Low Context Culture of CanadaCanada also belongs to low context culture, which emphasize straightforward, and come straight to the drumhead when they are in process of communication, all the information need to be conveyed with the clear and easy linguistic process by language, and often have no hidden meaning between the lines of words, the Canadians willing to bluntly express their views (Hall and Hall, 1990). In the process of craft communication, Canadians usually energetic and outgoing, who like the direct beneficial way of negotiations, the expression has obviously transactional and economic. In the process of negotiation, they sought to elucidate their own point of view, who utilize the simple and clear language to express the idea, they think that argument is not only the rights of presenting the individual opinion, but also can solve the problem, but this kind of practice for countries that have high context culture is hard to accept, which think Canadians are very aggressive. In the eyes of Canadians, they believe that silence is impolite behavior (Salleh, 2005). 3.3 The weaknesses of Halls high and low context model of culture (1990) However, though the model of Halls high context and low context culture has made great achievement on the analysis of national culture, and also provides reference for many scholars to help them to research the world culture. It still has some weaknesses in this model. Hall only proposes that the concept and features of high and low context culture, which does not provide the integrated system and detailed data to demonstrate his argument, and he does not classify all the countries, thus causing the fuzzy classification of some countries. Some scholars such as Hofstedes (2008) laissez faire vs. Collectivism Dimension, Trompenaarss (1998) Seven Dimensions of Culture , GLOBE authors (House et al., 2004), etc. which will have more evidences to argue the high and low context culture, which prove the disadvantages of Halls model. Kramsch (1993) proposes that high context culture often has too much emphasis on the human feelings, by rule of people instead of the legal system, which often lack of efficiency on operation. While low context culture emphasize on the rationality, and fall into the mechanical and rigid in the process of execution.3.4 The Cases of pedigree Communication on High Context Culture and Low Context Culture of HallAccording to the above analysis and critically evaluate of Halls high and low context model, this report will provide the example of business communication such as AUDIs official website in different countries which are South Korea and China (high context culture) and Sweden and Canada (low context culture) as below. AUDI is the world famous luxury car instigator, and is also one of the worlds most successful brands i n Germany which sells all over the world. As following, this report will illustrate the different performance of AUDIs official website in different countries of high and low context culture.3.4.1 AUDI in ChinaWhen opening the official website of AUDI in China as show in auxiliary of account 1, on the background of red jump into the view of consumers, because this is the Chinese source Festival recently, the red represents the good fortune and the best wishes, which brings the Chinese customers to the preserve on the vision. The forms of furnish is rendered on dynamic and the second picture (see Appendix of convention 2) reflects the activity of valentines day which is to buy a car to present the luxurious gift, the text on the image is that their holiday is a day, every day of your holiday is youth , the company uses the reserved words to express that AUDIs provide the activity of presenting the gifts when the customers purchase the car, rather than directly express the acti vity content (AUDI, n.d.). Because Chinese people can fancy deeper meaning in the process of watching pictures, and it also embodies that the communication subject of AUDI in high context culture of China. In addition, the AUDI in Chinas official website use more gorgeous and alterful images, which also reflects the Chinese pay attention to the visual enjoyment and feeling in the process of cultural communication.3.4.2 AUDI in SwedenCompared with the business communication of AUDI in China, Sweden as the low context culture country, the official website of AUDI provides more compact words and single color of picture (AUDI, n.d.), which do not like the picture in China website which has the red background, it mainly has the color of black and white(see the Figure 3 in Appendix). Each picture has the link to transfer some other page which has long paragraph to introduce the car in detail (see the Figure 4 in Appendix). This also reflects that the AUDIaccording to the low context c ulture of Sweden to implement the special business communication. It is different from South Korea and China, the central office page of AUDI in Sweden utilize the simple words and single color pictures to present the clear information about the performance and type of car, which live up to the requirement of low context culture in Sweden because in the business communication, Swedish prefers to choose the direct information of car to help them to remark the new product.3.4.3 AUDI in South KoreaThe official website of AUDI in South Korea is similar with the material body style of AUDI in China. Because South Korea also belongs to the high context culture, the style of website is simple and laconic, there are little words to clothe the pictures. When open the AUDIs official website in South Korea, it is the advertising word picture about The New Audi A3 pub, advertising is not directly express the cars performance and technology, just using the vivid images and implicit text w hich is it changes everything to make the metaphor of the perfect performance of the car, and will let the customer to love it (AUDI, n.d.). Because South Koreans are also high context culture, Korean customers can easily understand the meaning of advertisement. Besides, while search the web, the customer will find that every picture below has the button which can be directly connected to Facebook, Twitter and YouTube (see Figure 5 in Appendix). It is convenient for customers to search and share the interesting video content, it also can help company for indirect propaganda and increase the pleasure of Korean consumers (Wrtz, 2005). All design of website presents a wonderful and luxuriant content, this is because the Korean tends to present their own information to the others in the process of communication, and they also hope that to discernment more information slowly through their own understanding, which reflects the features of high context culture.3.4.4 AUDI in CanadaWhen b rowsing the home page of AUDI in Canada, the design of web page is simple and clear. (see the Figure 6 in Appendix). Although there are four rolling images in automatic replacement, but the contents on the picture are also very compact (AUDI, n.d.). As fountainhead as to introduce the AUDIs new car which is The New AUDI A3 Sedan, on the South Korea website is anadvertising film and implicative words to express, while in Canada website which is the publicity pictures of the car and write the sentence directly on the picture which is The all New 2015 A3 Sedan is coming . (see the Figure 7 in Appendix). This is associated with the culture of Canada, because Canada is part of low context culture country, when they make business communication, Canadians prefer straightforward way to express their opinions, that is the reason wherefore the website information of AUDI in Canada is only about the direct introduction. The color of the website design is very single (AUDI, n.d.), but each pr opaganda of picture has a link to analyse the detail about the information of product, which to help customers to understand the performance of the car better. It conforms the simple and direct cultural factors of Canada.4. ConclusionsThis report is as the aim of cross-cultural communication to discuss the high context culture and low context culture model of Hall. Firstly, this report defines and explains the Halls high and low context culture and its features. Then, based on the traits of model, it gives some cases of countries such as South Korea and China which belongs to high context culture and Sweden and Canada which are the representative of low context culture and also introduce their communication way that prove the practicability of Halls model. Furthermore, although the model has more contribution to the research of cross-cultural communication, on the basis of the research of some scholars, some weaknesses of this model will be reported. In order to make believe diffe rent business communication in different countries, this report provides the performances of AUDIs official website in South Korea, China, Sweden and Canada, which respectively belongs to high context culture and low context culture. In AUDIs official website, it clearly shows that in South Korea and China, the website reflects the high context culture which utilizes more the rolling pictures and the simple words to show the significant activities of company which can reflect the AUDIs excellent services. While in Sweden and Canada, the communication style of AUDIs official website is simple and brief, and directly put the performance of cars on the pictures, which embody the business communication of AUDI in low context culture country. The successof AUDI incarnates the availability of Halls model.5. ReferencesAhmed, T., et al. (2009) Website design guidelines High power distance and high-context culture. world(prenominal) ledger of Cyber Society and Education, 2(1), 47-60. AUDI . (n.d) AUDI in China. WWW for sale from http// . Accessed 15/02/2014. AUDI. (n.d) AUDI in Canada. WWW Available from http// . Accessed 15/02/2014. AUDI. (n.d) AUDI in South Korea. WWW Available from http// . Accessed 15/02/2014. AUDI. (n.d) AUDI in Sweden WWW Available from http// . Accessed 15/02/2014. Avruch, K. (2004). Culture as context, culture as communication Considerations for humane negotiators. Harv. Negot. L. Rev., 9, 391. Chua, E. G. and Gudykunst, W. B. (1987) Conflict resolution styles in low-and high-context cultures. Communication Research Reports, 4(1). Dozier, J. B., et al. (1998) Need for thanksgiving in low-context and high-context cultures A communications approach to cross-cultural ethics. Teaching Business Ethics, 2(2), 111-125. Hall, E. (1976) Beyond culture. New York Doubleday. 1976. p.101. Hall, E., & Hall, M. (1990) Understanding cultural differences Germans, French and Americans. Yarmouth Intercultural Press. Hofstede, G. (2008) Cultures Consequences Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. House, R., et al. (2004) Culture, Leadership, and Organizations. Thousand Oaks Sage. Jarvenpaa, S. L., et al. (1999) Consumer trust in an Internet store A crosscultural validation. Journal of electronic computerMediated Communication, 5(2), 0-0. Kim, D., et al. (1998) Highversus lowContext culture A comparison of Chinese, Korean, and American cultures. Psychology & Marketing, 15(6), 507-521. Kramsch, C. (1993) Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford University Press. Koeszegi, S., et al. (2004) case cultural differences in the use and perception of internet-based NSS does high or low context matter?. International Negotiation, 9(1), 79-109. Lustig, M. W. and Koester, J. (1999) Interpersonal competence Interpersonal communications across cu ltures. Moran, R. T., et al. (2007) Managing cultural differences. Routledge. Niemeier, S., etc. (1998) The culturalcontext in business communication. John Benjamins Publishing. Salleh, L. M. (2005). High/low context communication the Malayansian Malay style. In Proceedings of the 2005 Association for Business Communication Annual traffic pattern (pp. 1-11). Association for Business Communication. Trompenaars, F. (1998) Riding the Waves of Culture Understanding Diversity in Global Business. McGraw Hill, New York, 1998.Wrtz, E. (2005). A cross-cultural analysis of websites from high-context cultures and low-context cultures. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1), article-13.6. AppendixFigure 1 AUDI ChinaFigure 2 AUDI ChinaFigure 3 AUDI SwedenFigure4 AUDI SwedenFigure 5 AUDI South KoreaFigure 6 AUDI CanadaFigure 7 AUDI Canada

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